Dialectical Behavioral Therapy
Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) is an evidence-based intervention developed by Dr. Marsha Linehan at the University of Washington. DBT combines cognitive behavioral techniques for emotion regulation with distress tolerance, acceptance and mindfulness practices derived from Buddhism. The goal of DBT is to help clients create a meaningful life by balancing acceptance with a therapeutic push towards change. DBT is an effective treatment for impulsivity, suicidal behavior, eating disorders, substance abuse, emotional dysregulation and interpersonal conflict. DBT emphasizes the importance of a non-judgmental stance towards life and postulates that these problematic behaviors arise from environmental factors and biological ones.
There are four parts of DBT:
Mindfulness: learning skills to practice being fully aware and present in the moment. Originating in the practice of Buddhism, mindfulness entails a present-centered approach and emphasis on moment-to-moment experience.
Interpersonal Effectiveness: navigating conflict and interacting assertively. Skills learned could include things like strategies to ask for what you need, saying no, and coping with interpersonal conflict.
Distress Tolerance: skills for accepting, finding meaning for, and tolerating distress. Learn to feeling intense emotions like anger without reacting impulsively or using unhealthy coping strategies to reduce distress. Strategies used can include distracting, self-soothing, improving the moment, thinking of pros and cons, and employing acceptance skills.
Emotion Regulation: recognizing, labeling, and adjusting emotions. Help in learning to regulate your emotions and changing emotions you want to change. Skills can include: identifying and labeling emotions, identifying obstacles to changing emotions, increasing positive emotional events, increasing mindfulness to current emotions, taking opposite action, and applying distress tolerance techniques.
Trama Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) is a psychosocial treatment model designed to treat post-traumatic stress and related emotional and behavioral problems in children and adolescents ages 3 to 18 years. Initially developed to address problems associated with childhood sexual abuse, TF-CBT has been modified and tested with children who have experienced a wide array of traumas, including domestic violence, traumatic loss, war, commercial sexual exploitation, and the often multiple and complex traumas experienced by children who are placed in foster care. TF-CBT is appropriate for use with children exposed to trauma whose parents or caregivers did not participate in the abuse.
The program integrates cognitive, behavioral, interpersonal, and family therapy principles as well as trauma interventions. It is designed to be delivered by trained and certified TF-CBT therapists. The therapy approach is highly collaborative and the therapist works with both the child and the child’s non-offending parents or caregivers to identify and attain common goals. Initially, therapists provide parallel individual sessions with children and their parents or primary caregivers; joint parent–child sessions then become increasingly incorporated over the course of treatment.
Each TF-CBT session is aimed at building the therapeutic relationship while also providing education and skills development in a safe environment, in which the child is able to address and process traumatic memories. Joint parent–child sessions are aimed at helping parents and children practice the skills learned during therapy and enabling the children to share their stories of trauma, while also nurturing more effective parent–child communication about the abuse and related issues.
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is an evidence-based treatment developed by Aaron Beck. CBT is comprised of an interrelated set of treatments all growing out of the idea that our cognitions (thoughts) and our behaviors (actions) are intricately related to our emotional experience. It is effective in the treatment for a wide variety of psychological issues, including depression and anxiety. Strategies offered by CBT include: setting manageable and realistic goals to engage in new patterns of behavior; challenging unhelpful assumptions in thoughts and beliefs about oneself and one’s world; and practicing adaptive coping strategies for managing intense emotions (e.g., relaxation).
Motivational Interviewing (MI) is an evidence-based, person-centered method for helping people recognize and change problem behavior. Developed by William Miller and Stephen Rollnick, MI is designed to strengthen an individual’s intrinsic motivation for change by resolving ambivalence within an atmosphere of acceptance and compassion. While MI was originally designed to help address alcohol problems and other addictions, and was seen as an alternative to 12 step treatment approaches, it now applied broadly across a variety of medical and health related areas.